General Rules and Regulations for
Rule 302 -- Signatures
Required signatures to, or within, any electronic submission
(including, without limitation, signatories within the certifications required
by Rule 13a-14, Rule
15d-14 and Rule 30a-2) must be in
typed form rather than manual format. Signatures in an HTML document that are
not required may, but are not required to, be presented in an HTML graphic or
image file within the electronic filing, in compliance with the formatting requirements
of the EDGAR Filer Manual. When used in connection with an electronic filing,
the term "signature" means an electronic entry in the form of a magnetic impulse
or other form of computer data compilation of any letters or series of letters
or characters comprising a name, executed, adopted or authorized as a signature.
Signatures are not required in unofficial PDF copies submitted in accordance with
Each signatory to an electronic filing (including, without
limitation, each signatory to the certifications required by Rule 13a-14,
Rule 15d-14 and Rule 30a-2) shall manually sign a signature page or other
document authenticating, acknowledging or otherwise adopting his or her signature
that appears in typed form within the electronic filing. Such document shall
be executed before or at the time the electronic filing is made and shall
be retained by the filer for a period of five years. Upon request, an electronic
filer shall furnish to the Commission or its staff a copy of any or all documents
retained pursuant to this section.
Where the Commission's rules require a registrant to furnish
to a national securities exchange or national securities association paper
copies of a document filed with the Commission in electronic format, signatures
to such paper copies may be in typed form.
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